The concept of providing access for non-traditional learners via e-learning is not new. For refugees, several initiatives have been developed such as online based language learning, short courses with or without certificate, as well as full degrees via MOOCs (massive open online courses). The MOOCS4Inclusion study, commissioned by the European Commission and the Directorate General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC), provides a comprehensive overview of the international e-learning offer for refugees, and analyses its efficiency. From the viewpoint of refugee learners, blended approaches seem to work best.
This aspect is also reflected in the initiatives selected for the GPC in this category. They either blend online and face-to-face provision, or offer online learning as one of the features of a broader initiative for refugees.