Fluency in the domestic language and the language of instruction are a precondition for both success in study and social life. A language level of B2, or even C1, is usually an admission requirement set at the system or institutional level. Even programmes offered fully in the English language often require a basic command of the domestic language.
In addition, many institutions provide bridging courses to ensure that students fulfil other formal requirements, in particular in the degrees leading to regulated professions, or to allow the student to gain additional credits, which may be lacking due to the different degree structures, for instance when entering a Master’s programme. Bridging courses are also often offered to help students become acquainted with different academic traditions, academic writing, research approaches, etc.
More than half of the initiatives in the EUA’s Refugees Welcome Map offer some form of language training, often combined with other bridging and integration courses (see section on integration). The initiatives that are presented here take a holistic and flexible approach and often target formally recognised refugees as well as asylum seekers.